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'''Proton''' (Прото́н) (formal designation: '''UR-500''') is an [[expendable launch system]] used for both commercial and [[Russia]]n government space launches. The first Proton [[rocket]] was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2012, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the [[Khrunichev]] plant in Moscow, and then transported for launch to the [[Baikonur Cosmodrome]], where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/proton-mission-planners-guide |title=Proton Mission Planner's Guide |publisher=International Launch Services}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexpgp/40437004/ |date=September 5, 2005|title=Proton Verticalization, Pad 39, Baikonur |publisher=flickr}}</ref>
[[File:On the launch pad.jpg|thumb|Proton-M awaits launch]]
Like many Soviet boosters, the names of recurring payloads became associated with their launchers. Thus the moniker "Proton" originates from a series of large scientific [[Proton satellite]]s, which were among the rocket's first payloads. It is also known as the '''D-1'''/'''D-1e''' or '''SL-12'''/'''SL-13'''.
 
Launch capacity to [[low Earth orbit]] is about {{convert|22|t|lb|lk=in}}. Geostationary transfer capacity is about {{convert|5|-|6|t|lb}}. Commercial launches are marketed by [[International Launch Services]] (ILS). In a typical launch of a commercial communications satellite destined for [[geostationary orbit]], a Proton M/Briz-M can place a spacecraft with mass at separation of {{convert|4140|kg|lb}} into an orbit with an apogee of {{convert|35786|km|mi}}, a perigee of {{convert|6257|km|mi}} and an inclination of 19.7°.<ref>{{cite press|date=March 7, 2008|url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-launch-amc-14-satellite |title=ILS Proton to Launch AMC-14 Satellite |publisher=ILS}}</ref>
==Proton 8K82K==
{{Main|Proton-K}}
The ([[GRAU index]]) 8K82K version is now usually called "Proton K". It is fuelled by [[UDMH|unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine]] and [[nitrogen tetroxide]].<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle</ref> These are [[hypergolic]] fuels which burn on contact, avoiding the need for an ignition system, and can be stored at ambient temperatures. This avoids the need for components that are tolerant of low temperatures, and allows the rocket to sit on the pad indefinitely (other launchers with such capability include the U.S. [[Titan (rocket family)|Titan II]], [[Titan III]], and [[Titan IV]], the Chinese [[Long March 2 rocket family]] and [[Long March 4 rocket family]], the Soviet/Ukrainian [[Tsyklon]] launchers, the Soviet/Russian [[Kosmos-3]] and [[Kosmos-3M]] launchers and the European Ariane 1 to [[Ariane 4]] launchers). In contrast, [[cryogenic fuel]]s need periodic topping-up of propellants as they boil off.
 
The fourth stage has come in multiple variants, depending on the mission. The simplest, [[Block D|Blok D]], was used for interplanetary missions. Blok D had no guidance module, depending on the probe to control flight. Three different Blok DM versions (DM, DM2, and DM-2M) were for high Earth orbits. (Low-Earth orbits often skipped a fourth stage entirely, hence the third stage's self-contained guidance capability.) The Blok D/DM were unusual in that the fuel was stored in a toroidal tank, around the engine and behind the oxidizer tank.
Proton launch vehicles and Briz-M Upper Stages are designed and built by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) in Moscow, the majority owner of International Launch Services (ILS). The Center is home to all engineering, assembly and test functions of the Proton production. And now, with the recent consolidation of the Russian space enterprises, Khrunichev has direct oversight and control of up to 70% of all Proton manufacturing from suppliers to manufacturers. The consolidation directly supports Khrunichev’s ongoing efforts for vertical integration of Proton production.<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/sites/default/files/pdf/ILS%20Proton%20Brochure.pdf</ref>
 
The most recent enhanced Proton, the Phase III Proton-M/Briz-M launch vehicle, was flight proven on the Russian Federal dual mission of Express AM-44 and Express MD-1 in February 2009 and performed its first commercial launch in March 2010 with the Echostar XIV satellite. The Proton-M/Briz-M phase III configuration is the current standard configuration for ILS Proton. This configuration provides 6150&nbsp;kg of GTO performance, which is an increase of 1150&nbsp;kg over the original Proton-M Briz-M, while maintaining the fundamental design configuration.
 
Khrunichev has initiated development of a set of phase IV enhancements in order to keep pace with market demands and the mass growth trends of commercial satellites. The implementation of Phase IV Proton Briz-M enhancements will be completed in 2013. The Payloads Systems Mass performance for phase IV has been increased to 6300&nbsp;kg to a reference GTO orbit with 1500&nbsp;m/s of residual delta V to GSO.<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle/proton-heritage</ref>
[[Category:Universal Rocket (rocket family)]]
[[Category:Space launch vehicles of the Soviet Union]]
 
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