ပရိုတွန်ဒုံးပျံ: တည်းဖြတ်မှု မူကွဲများ

၁၃၉၉၀ ဘိုက် ဖယ်ရှားခဲ့သည် ,  ပြီးခဲ့သည့် ၇ နှစ်
တည်းဖြတ်မှုအတွက် စကားချပ် မရှိပါ
အရေးမကြီး (Removing Link GA template (handled by wikidata))
No edit summary
{{Stub}}
{{not Burmese}}{{delete}}{{Infobox rocket
|image =Proton Zvezda crop.jpg
|caption =Launch of a Proton rocket
|name = Proton 8K82K
|function = Unmanned launch vehicle
|manufacturer = [[Khrunichev]]
|country-origin = Soviet Union; Russia
|height = {{convert|53|m|ft}}
|alt-height =
|diameter = {{convert|7.4|m|ft}}
|alt-diameter =
|mass = {{convert|693.81|MT|lb}} (3 stage)
|alt-mass =
|stages = 3 or 4
|LEO-payload = {{convert|20.7|MT|lb}}
|alt-LEO =
|payload-location = [[Geostationary transfer orbit|GTO]]
|payload = {{convert|5|MT|lb}}
|alt-payload =
|status = Active
|sites = [[Baikonur Cosmodrome|Baikonur]], [[Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 200|LC-200]] & [[Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81|LC-81]]
|launches = 382
|success = 339
|other_outcome =
|payloads = [[Salyut 6]] & [[Salyut 7]]<br>[[Mir]] & [[International Space Station|ISS components]] <br> [[ViaSat-1]]
|fail = 43
|first='''Proton:''' 16 July 1965<br>'''Proton-K:''' 10 March 1967<br>'''Proton-M:''' 7 April 2001
|last='''Proton:''' 6 July 1966<br>'''Proton-K:''' 30 March 2012
|boosters =
|boostername=
|boosterengines =
|boosterthrust =
|alt-boosterthrust =
|boosterSI =
|boostertime =
|boosterfuel =
|stage1name =
|stage1engines = Proton K-1
|stage1thrust = 10.47 [[Newton (unit)|MN]]
|alt-stage1thrust = 1.9 million pounds
|stage1SI =
|stage1time = 2' 6"
|stage1fuel = [[Dinitrogen tetroxide|N<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>]]/[[UDMH]]
|stage1engines = 6 [[RD-275]]
|stage2name =
|stage2engines = 3 [[RD-0210]] & 1 [[RD-0211]]
|stage2thrust = {{convert|2.399|MN|lbf|abbr=on}}<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/mwade/lvs/pro8k82k.htm |title=Proton 8K82K}}</ref>
|alt-stage2thrust =
|stage2SI =
|stage2time = 3' 28"
|stage2fuel =[[Dinitrogen tetroxide|N<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>]]/[[UDMH]]
|stage3name =
|stage3engines = 1 [[RD-0212]]
|stage3thrust = {{convert|630|kN|lbf|abbr=on}}
|alt-stage3thrust =
|stage3SI =
|stage3time =
|stage3fuel =[[Dinitrogen tetroxide|N<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>]]/[[UDMH]]
|stage4name = Block-D/DM
|stage4engines = [[RD-58M]]
|stage4thrust = {{convert|83.4|kN|lbf|abbr=on}}
|alt-stage4thrust =
|stage4SI =
|stage4time =
|stage4fuel = [[LOX]]/[[RP-1]]
}}
 
ပရိုတွန် ဒုံးပျံ ဆိုသည်မှာ စီးပွားဖြစ်သုံး နှင့် ရုရှားအစိုးရ၏ အာကာသ ပရော့ဂျက်များတွင် အသုံးပြုသော ဒုံးပျံ တစ်မျိုး ဖြစ်သည်။ ပထမဆုံး ပရိုတွန် ဒုံးပျံကို ၁၉၆၅ ခုနှစ်တွင် စတင် လွှတ်တင်ခဲ့သည်။ အသစ် ထပ်မံ ပြုပြင် ထားသော ဒုံးပျံများကို ၂၀၁၅ တိုင်အောင် အသုံးပြုဆဲ ဖြစ်သည်။
'''Proton''' (Прото́н) (formal designation: '''UR-500''') is an [[expendable launch system]] used for both commercial and [[Russia]]n government space launches. The first Proton [[rocket]] was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2012, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the [[Khrunichev]] plant in Moscow, and then transported for launch to the [[Baikonur Cosmodrome]], where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/proton-mission-planners-guide |title=Proton Mission Planner's Guide |publisher=International Launch Services}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexpgp/40437004/ |date=September 5, 2005|title=Proton Verticalization, Pad 39, Baikonur |publisher=flickr}}</ref>
[[File:On the launch pad.jpg|thumb|Proton-M awaits launch]]
Like many Soviet boosters, the names of recurring payloads became associated with their launchers. Thus the moniker "Proton" originates from a series of large scientific [[Proton satellite]]s, which were among the rocket's first payloads. It is also known as the '''D-1'''/'''D-1e''' or '''SL-12'''/'''SL-13'''.
 
Launch capacity to [[low Earth orbit]] is about {{convert|22|t|lb|lk=in}}. Geostationary transfer capacity is about {{convert|5|-|6|t|lb}}. Commercial launches are marketed by [[International Launch Services]] (ILS). In a typical launch of a commercial communications satellite destined for [[geostationary orbit]], a Proton M/Briz-M can place a spacecraft with mass at separation of {{convert|4140|kg|lb}} into an orbit with an apogee of {{convert|35786|km|mi}}, a perigee of {{convert|6257|km|mi}} and an inclination of 19.7°.<ref>{{cite press|date=March 7, 2008|url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-launch-amc-14-satellite |title=ILS Proton to Launch AMC-14 Satellite |publisher=ILS}}</ref>
 
==History==
Proton<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle/proton-heritage |title=Proton Heritage |publisher=International Launch Services}}</ref> initially started life as a "super [[ICBM]]." It was designed to launch a 100-[[TNT equivalent|megaton]] (or larger) [[Nuclear weapon|nuclear]] [[warhead]] over a distance of 13,000&nbsp;km. It was hugely oversized for an ICBM, and was never deployed in such a capacity. It was eventually utilized as a space [[launch vehicle]]. It was the brainchild of [[Vladimir Chelomei]]'s design bureau as a foil to [[Sergei Korolev]]'s [[N1 rocket|N1]] booster with the specific intent of sending a two-man [[Zond]] craft around the Moon. With the termination of the [[Saturn V]] program, Proton became the largest [[expendable launch system]] in service until the [[Energia]] rocket first flew in 1987 and the U.S. [[Titan IV]] in 1989.
 
Between the 1965 first flight and 1970, the Proton experienced dozens of failures. However, once perfected it became one of the most reliable heavy launch vehicles. With a total of about 335 launches, it has an 88% success rate.
 
[[Category:ဒုံးပျံ]]
Proton launched the unmanned Soviet circumlunar flights, and was intended to have launched the first Soviet [[circumlunar]] spaceflights, before the United States flew the [[Apollo 8]] mission. Proton launched the [[Salyut]] space stations, the [[Mir]] core segment and expansion modules, and both the [[Zarya]] and [[Zvezda (ISS module)|Zvezda]] modules of the [[International Space Station|ISS]]. It also launched many probes to the Moon, [[Mars]], [[Venus]], and even [[Halley's Comet]] (using the 4-stage '''D-1e''' version).
 
Proton also launches commercial [[satellite]]s, most of them being managed by [[International Launch Services]]. The first ILS Proton launch was on 9 April 1996 with the launch of the [[SES S.A.|SES]] [[Astra 1F]] [[communications satellite]].<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/proton-launch-archives</ref>
 
Since 1994, Proton has earned $4.3 billion for the Russian space industry, and by 2011 this figure is expected to rise to $6 billion.<ref name="nesterov">[http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=581 Statement by Vladimir Ye.Nesterov, Khrunichev Director-General, at Press Conference on 15 July 2010] Khruhichev 2010-07-29.</ref>
 
==Proton 8K82K==
{{Main|Proton-K}}
The ([[GRAU index]]) 8K82K version is now usually called "Proton K". It is fuelled by [[UDMH|unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine]] and [[nitrogen tetroxide]].<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle</ref> These are [[hypergolic]] fuels which burn on contact, avoiding the need for an ignition system, and can be stored at ambient temperatures. This avoids the need for components that are tolerant of low temperatures, and allows the rocket to sit on the pad indefinitely (other launchers with such capability include the U.S. [[Titan (rocket family)|Titan II]], [[Titan III]], and [[Titan IV]], the Chinese [[Long March 2 rocket family]] and [[Long March 4 rocket family]], the Soviet/Ukrainian [[Tsyklon]] launchers, the Soviet/Russian [[Kosmos-3]] and [[Kosmos-3M]] launchers and the European Ariane 1 to [[Ariane 4]] launchers). In contrast, [[cryogenic fuel]]s need periodic topping-up of propellants as they boil off.
 
The fourth stage has come in multiple variants, depending on the mission. The simplest, [[Block D|Blok D]], was used for interplanetary missions. Blok D had no guidance module, depending on the probe to control flight. Three different Blok DM versions (DM, DM2, and DM-2M) were for high Earth orbits. (Low-Earth orbits often skipped a fourth stage entirely, hence the third stage's self-contained guidance capability.) The Blok D/DM were unusual in that the fuel was stored in a toroidal tank, around the engine and behind the oxidizer tank.
 
==Proton-M==
{{Main|Proton-M}}
The latest version is the Proton M, which can launch {{convert|3|-|3.2|t|lb}} into [[geostationary orbit]] or {{convert|5.5|t|lb}} into a [[geostationary transfer orbit]]. It can place up to {{convert|22|t|lb}} in low Earth orbit with a 51.6-degree inclination, the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).
[[File:Launch Vehicle "Verticalization", Proton-M.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Proton-M, part rotated to the vertical. In the background the mobile service tower can be observed]]
The Proton M's improvements include modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants. Generally a [[Briz-M]] ({{lang-ru|Бриз}} meaning ''Breeze'') storable propellant upper stage is used instead of the [[Block D]] or [[Block DM]] stage, eliminating the need for multiple fuel supplies and oxygen top-off due to boiling; however, the Proton-M has also flown with a Block-DM upper stage. Efforts were also made to reduce dependency on foreign (usually Ukrainian) component suppliers.
 
Proton launch vehicles and Briz-M Upper Stages are designed and built by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) in Moscow, the majority owner of International Launch Services (ILS). The Center is home to all engineering, assembly and test functions of the Proton production. And now, with the recent consolidation of the Russian space enterprises, Khrunichev has direct oversight and control of up to 70% of all Proton manufacturing from suppliers to manufacturers. The consolidation directly supports Khrunichev’s ongoing efforts for vertical integration of Proton production.<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/sites/default/files/pdf/ILS%20Proton%20Brochure.pdf</ref>
 
The most recent enhanced Proton, the Phase III Proton-M/Briz-M launch vehicle, was flight proven on the Russian Federal dual mission of Express AM-44 and Express MD-1 in February 2009 and performed its first commercial launch in March 2010 with the Echostar XIV satellite. The Proton-M/Briz-M phase III configuration is the current standard configuration for ILS Proton. This configuration provides 6150&nbsp;kg of GTO performance, which is an increase of 1150&nbsp;kg over the original Proton-M Briz-M, while maintaining the fundamental design configuration.
 
Khrunichev has initiated development of a set of phase IV enhancements in order to keep pace with market demands and the mass growth trends of commercial satellites. The implementation of Phase IV Proton Briz-M enhancements will be completed in 2013. The Payloads Systems Mass performance for phase IV has been increased to 6300&nbsp;kg to a reference GTO orbit with 1500&nbsp;m/s of residual delta V to GSO.<ref>http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle/proton-heritage</ref>
 
In August 2012, the Russian Federal Space Agency lost both a Russian and Indonesian communications satellite in an attempt to bring them in orbit using a Proton-M rocket. The satellites didn't make it into orbit due to technical difficulties with the last stage of the Proton-M.<ref>http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/08/russia-suffers-another-embarrassing-failure-in-space-.html</ref>
 
{{clear}}
 
== Launches ==
{{Main|List of Proton launches}}
 
==Future developments==
Significant upgrades were temporarily put on hold following announcement of the new [[Angara rocket|Angara]] launch vehicle. The single largest upgrade was the KVRB stage. This [[Cryogenic fuel|cryogenic]] stage would have greatly increased capacity. The engine was developed successfully, and the stage as a whole had progressed to hardware. However, as KVRB is noticeably larger than Blok D, the vehicle's aerodynamics, flight control, software, and possibly electronics would have to be reevaluated. In addition, the launch pad can supply existing Protons with common hypergol fuels from single sources. The upper stages, in particular, are fed by common loading pipes running along the rocket. Switching to a stage with different fuels requires the addition of extra support articles; switching to cryogens requires that such support articles top off the stage periodically.
 
Heavy variants of Angara will be simpler and cheaper than Proton (and like the new [[Atlas V]] rocket, will not use hypergolics; instead, it will use the same [[RP-1]] fuel as that used on the [[Soyuz (rocket family)|Soyuz rocket]]). They will also be designed from the start to accept a KVRB stage, and will already have a LOX supply at the pad; only a hydrogen supply will be called upon. However, delays in Angara development mean that Protons will continue to fly for some time.
 
Frank McKenna, CEO of ILS, has indicated that in 2010 the Phase III Proton design would become the standard ILS configuration, with the ability to lift 6.15 [[metric ton]]s to GTO.<ref>{{cite web |first=Ronan|last=Murphy|url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/ils-news/satellite-finance-article-ils-reaps-rewards-khrunichev-takeover |title=ILS Reaps Reward of Khrunichev Takeover |publisher=Satellite Finance |date=December 2009| format=PDF| pages =28–31}}</ref>
 
== See also==
* [[Comparison of orbital launchers families]]
* [[Comparison of orbital launch systems]]
 
=== Similar launch systems ===
* [[Delta IV|Delta IV Heavy]]
* [[Atlas V|Atlas V Heavy]]
* [[Ariane 5]]
* [[Long March 5|Chang Zheng 5]]
* [[Angara (rocket)|Angara A5]]
* [[Falcon 9]]
* [[H-IIA]]
 
== References ==
{{reflist}}
 
==External links==
{{Commons and category|Proton (Rocket)|Proton (rocket)}}
*[http://www.lyngsat.com/launches/Baikonur.html Proton launches page on LyngSat]
*[http://www.russianspaceweb.com/proton.html Proton rocket specifications sheet]
*[http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/sd2001-14/sd2001-14-001.shtml Proton M Debuts With Successful Ekran Launch on April 7, 2001]
*[http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/proton.htm Proton 8K82K / Briz-M]. Astronautix.
*[http://www.fas.org/spp/guide/russia/launch/proton.htm FAS - Proton Launch Vehicle]
*[http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle ILS Proton]
*[http://www.satlaunch.net/p/launch-schedule-2011.html Proton launch schedules on Satlaunch]
*[http://masterok.livejournal.com/141745.html#cutid1 Слабое звено - "Бриз-М"]
 
{{Universal Rocket}}
{{Russian launch vehicles}}
{{Expendable launch systems}}
 
[[Category:1967 in spaceflight]]
[[Category:1971 in spaceflight]]
[[Category:1972 in spaceflight]]
[[Category:1973 in spaceflight]]
[[Category:Space launch vehicles of Russia]]
[[Category:Soviet inventions]]
[[Category:Russian inventions]]
[[Category:Universal Rocket (rocket family)]]
[[Category:Space launch vehicles of the Soviet Union]]
၁၄၅၀၆

တည်းဖြတ်မှုများ