ဂျပန်နာမ်စားသည် ဂျပန်ဘာသာစကားရှိ စကားလုံးများဖြစ်ပြီး လူများ၊ အရာဝတ္ထုများကို ရည်ညွှန်းပြောဆိုရာတွင် အသုံးပြုသည်။

လူပုဂ္ဂိုလ်များအတွက် ဂျပန်နာမ်စားများပြင်ဆင်

ဤစာရင်းသည် ပြီးပြည့်စုံမှု မရှိသေးပေ။ ဂျပန်ဘာသာစကားတွင် လူပုဂ္ဂိုလ်များကို ရည်ညွှန်းသည့် နာမ်စားများ များစွာရှိသည်။ အောက်ပါစာရင်းသည် အသုံးအများဆုံးနာမ်စားများဖြစ်သည်။

ရိုမဂျိ ဟိရဂန ခန်ဂျိ Level of speech Gender Notes
– I/me –
watashi わたし formal/informal both In formal or polite contexts, this is gender neutral; in casual speech, it is typically only used by women. Use by men in casual context may be perceived as either stiff or feminine.
watakushi わたくし very formal both The most formal personal pronoun.[၁][ပိုမိုကောင်းမွန်သော ရင်းမြစ် လိုအပ်သည်]
ware われ 我, 吾 very formal both Used in literary style. Also used as rude second person in western dialects.
waga わが 我が very formal both Means "my" or "our". Used in speeches and formalities; 我が社 waga-sha (our company) or 我が国 waga-kuni (our country).
တမ်းပလိတ်:Vanchor おれ informal males Frequently used by men.[၂] Establishes a sense of masculinity. Can be seen as rude depending on the context. Emphasizes one's own status when used with peers and with those who are younger or of lesser status. Among close friends or family, its use conveys familiarity rather than masculinity or superiority. It was used by both genders until the late Edo period and still is in some dialects. Also oi in Kyushu dialect.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Vanchor ぼく formal/informal males Used by males of all ages; very often used by boys. Perceived as humble, but can also carry an undertone of "feeling young" when used by males of older age. Also used when casually giving deference; "servant" uses the same kanji ( shimobe). Can also be used as a second-person pronoun toward male children (English equivalent – "kid" or "squirt").
washi わし formal/informal mainly males Often used in western dialects and fictional settings to stereotypically represent characters of old age. Also wai, a slang version of washi in the Kansai dialect.
jibun じぶん 自分 formal/informal mainly males Literally "oneself"; used as either reflexive or personal pronoun. Can convey a sense of distance when used in the latter way. Also used as casual second person pronoun in the Kansai dialect.
atai あたい very informal females Slang version of あたし atashi.[၁]
atashi あたし informal females, rarely males (Edo dialect) A feminine pronoun that strains from わたし ("watashi"). Rarely used in written language, but common in conversation, especially among younger women.
atakushi あたくし informal females
uchi うち 家, 内 informal mostly females Means "one's own". Often used in western dialects especially the Kansai dialect. Generally written in kana. Plural form uchi-ra is used by both genders. Singular form is also used by both sexes when talking about the household, e.g., "uchi no neko" ("my/our cat"), "uchi no chichi-oya" ("my father"); also used in less formal business speech to mean "our company", e.g., "uchi wa sandai no rekkāsha ga aru" ("we (our company) have three tow-trucks").
(own name) informal both Used by small children and young women, considered cute and childish.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Vanchor おいら informal males Similar to 俺 ore, but more casual. Evokes a person with a rural background, a "country bumpkin".
တမ်းပလိတ်:Vanchor おら informal both Dialect in Kanto and further north. Similar to おいら oira, but more rural. Famous as used by main characters in Dragon Ball and Crayon Shin-chan among children. Also ura in some dialects.
wate わて informal both Dated Kansai dialect. Also ate (somewhat feminine).
shōsei しょうせい 小生 formal, written males Used among academic colleagues. Lit. "your pupil".[၃]
– you (singular) –
(name and honorific) formality depends on the honorific used both
anata あなた 貴方, 貴男, 貴女 formal/informal both The kanji are very rarely used. The only second person pronoun comparable to English "you", yet still not used as often in this universal way by native speakers, as it can be considered having a condescending undertone, especially towards superiors.[၄][၂][ပိုမိုကောင်းမွန်သော ရင်းမြစ် လိုအပ်သည်] For expressing "you" in formal contexts, using the person's name with an honorific is more typical. More commonly, anata may be used when having no information about the addressed person; also often used as "you" in commercials, when not referring to a particular person. Furthermore, commonly used by women to address their husband or lover, in a way roughly equivalent to the English "dear".
anta あんた informal both Contraction of あなた anata.[၁] Can express contempt, anger or familiarity towards a person. Generally seen as rude or uneducated when used in formal contexts.
otaku おたく お宅, 御宅 formal, polite both A polite way of saying "your house", also used as a pronoun to address a person with slight sense of distance. Otaku/otakki/ota turned into a slang term referring to a type of geek/obsessive hobbyist, as they often addressed each other as otaku.
omae おまえ お前 very informal both (masculine) Similar to anta, but used by men with more frequency.[၂] Expresses the speaker's higher status or age, or a very casual relationship among peers. Often used with おれ ore.[၂] Very rude if said to elders. Commonly used by men to address their wife or lover, paralleling the female use of "anata".
temē, temae てめえ,
てまえ
手前 rude and confrontational[၁] mainly males Literal meaning "the one in front of my hand". Temē, a reduction of temae, is more rude. Used when the speaker is very angry. Originally used for a humble first person. The Kanji are seldom used with this meaning, as unrelated to its use as a pronoun, 手前 can also mean "before", "this side", "one's standpoint" or "one's appearance".
kisama きさま 貴様 extremely hostile and rude mainly males Historically very formal, but has developed in an ironic sense to show the speaker's extreme hostility / outrage towards the addressee.
kimi きみ informal both The kanji means "lord" (archaic) and is also used to write -kun.[၅] Informal to subordinates; can also be affectionate; formerly very polite. Among peers typically used with 僕 boku.[၂] Often seen as rude or assuming when used with superiors, elders or strangers.[၂]
kika きか 貴下 informal, to a younger person both
kikan きかん 貴官 very formal, used to address government officials, military personnel, etc. both
on-sha おんしゃ 御社 formal, used to the listener representing your company both only used in spoken language.
ki-sha きしゃ 貴社 formal, similar to onsha both only used in written language as opposed to onsha
– he / she –
ano kata あのかた あの方 very formal both Sometimes pronounced ano hou, but with the same kanji. 方 means "direction," and is more formal by avoiding referring to the actual person in question.
ano hito あのひと あの人 formal/informal both Literally "that person".
yatsu やつ informal both A thing (very informal), dude, guy.
koitsu, koyatsu こいつ, こやつ 此奴 very informal, implies contempt both Denotes a person or material nearby the speaker. Analogous to "he/she" or "this one".
soitsu, soyatsu そいつ, そやつ 其奴 very informal, implies contempt both Denotes a person or material nearby the listener. Analogous to "he/she" or "that one".
aitsu, ayatsu あいつ, あやつ 彼奴 very informal, implies contempt both Denotes a person or (less frequently) material far from both the speaker and the listener. Analogous to "he/she" or "that one".
– he –
kare かれ formal (neutral) and informal (boyfriend) both Can also mean "boyfriend". Formerly 彼氏 kareshi was its equivalent, but this now always means "boyfriend".
– she –
kanojo かのじょ 彼女 formal (neutral) and informal (girlfriend) both Originally created from 彼の女 kano on'na "that female" as an equivalent to female pronouns in European languages. Can also mean "girlfriend".[၆]
– we (see also list of pluralising suffixes, below)
ware-ware われわれ 我々 formal both Mostly used when speaking on behalf of a company or group.
ware-ra われら 我等 informal both Used in literary style. ware is never used with -tachi.
hei-sha へいしゃ 弊社 formal and humble both Used when representing one's own company. From a Sino-Japanese word meaning "low company" or "humble company".
waga-sha わがしゃ 我が社 formal both Used when representing one's own company.
– they (see also list of pluralising suffixes, below)
kare-ra かれら 彼等 common in spoken Japanese and writing both

Archaic personal pronounsပြင်ဆင်

Romaji Hiragana Kanji Meaning Level of speech Gender Notes
asshi あっし I males Slang version of watashi. From the Edo period.
sessha せっしゃ 拙者 I males Used by samurai during the feudal ages (and often also by ninja in fictionalized portrayals). From a Sino-Japanese word meaning "one who is clumsy".
wagahai わがはい 我が輩, 吾輩 I males Literally "my fellows; my class; my cohort", but used in a somewhat pompous manner as a first-person singular pronoun.
soregashi それがし I males Literally "So-and-so", a nameless expression. Similar to sessha.
warawa わらわ I females Literally "child". Mainly used by women in samurai family. Today, it is used in fictional settings to represent archaic noble female characters.
wachiki わちき I females Used by geisha and oiran in Edo period. Also あちき achiki and わっち watchi.
yo 余, 予 I males Archaic first-person singular pronoun.
chin ちん I males Used only by the emperor, mostly before World War II.
maro まろ 麻呂, 麿 I males Used as a universal first-person pronoun in ancient times. Today, it is used in fictional settings to represent Court noble male characters.
onore おのれ I or you males The word onore, as well as the kanji used to transcribe it, literally means "oneself". It is humble when used as a first person pronoun and hostile (on the level of てめえ temee or てまえ temae) when used as a second person pronoun.
kei けい you males Second person pronoun, used mostly by males. Used among peers to denote light respect, and by a superior addressing his subjects and retainers in a familiar manner. Like 君 kimi, this can also be used as a honorific (pronounced as きょう kyou), in which case it's equivalent to "lord/lady" or "sir/dame".
nanji なんじ 汝, less commonly also 爾 you, often translated as "thou" both Spelled as なむち namuchi in the most ancient texts and later as なんち nanchi or なんぢ nanji.
onushi おぬし 御主, お主 you both Used by elders and samurai to talk to people of equal or lower rank, as well as by fictional ninja. Literally means "master".
sonata そなた 其方 (rarely used) you both Originally a mesial deictic pronoun meaning "that side; that way; that direction"; used as a lightly respectful second person pronoun in previous eras, but now used when speaking to an inferior in a pompous and old-fashioned tone.
sochi そち 其方 (rarely used) you both Similar to そなた sonata. Literally means "that way". (Sochira and kochira, sometimes shortened to sotchi and kotchi, are still sometimes used to mean roughly "you" and "I, we", e.g. kochira koso in response to thanks or an apology means literally "this side is the one" but idiomatically "no, I (or we) thank/apologize to you"; especially common on the telephone, analogous to phrases like "on this end" and "on your end" in English.)

ကိုးကားပြင်ဆင်

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ ၁.၂ ၁.၃ Personal pronouns in Japanese Japan Reference. Retrieved on October 21, 2007
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ ၂.၂ ၂.၃ ၂.၄ ၂.၅ 8.1. Pronouns sf.airnet.ne.jp Retrieved on October 21, 2007
  3. Language Log » Japanese first person pronouns
  4. ကိုးကား အမှား - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Akiyama
  5. old boy။ Kanjidict.com။ 2012-05-07 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  6. he။ Kanjidict.com။ 2012-05-07 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။